"A Sindhi Woman" Theme Theme Of The Poem "A Sindhi Woman", Here is the the Night Mail Poem theme, Explanation, Questions answers for fbise, punjab boards, 11th Class, Exercise Solved Free Download and Read online..."Night Mail" Poem All Stanzas Explanation Theme Questions Answers
CLASS: 11th CLASS (1ST YEAR, FSC PART 1, HSSC-1, ICS)
SUBJECT: ENGLISH BOOK Iii (PTBB)
POEM NAME: “NIGHT MAIL”
POET NAME: “W.H. AUDEN”

THEME

The poet personifies night mail. He gives it human attributes (features). It travels through pastoral set-up. There are fields, hills, sheep, dogs and small stores. She climbs hilltops, crosses borders and passes through fields. She travels far and wide but she is never late. She delivers letters, postal orders and cheques far and wide. Birds are surprised to look at her blank coaches. She dogs don’t bother about her. The night mail is welcomed as a living part of the pastoral life. She is a symbol of equity. It joins different people of different areas together.

 

STANZA NO. 1
This is the night mail crossing the Border,
Bringing the cheque and the postal order,
Letters for the rich, letters for the poor,
The shop at the corner, the girl next door,

Reference:

These lines have been taken from the poem “Night Mail” written by W.H. Auden.

Context:
There is a train that brings things to people it is punctual. It passes through villages but nobody is alarmed or perturbed.

Explanation:

The train travels all the night. It crosses the boundaries of different areas. On its way, it delivers different things to the people of various countries, creeds and classes. It brings cheques, postal orders and letters. The rich and the poor, the young and the old, all enjoy the services of the train equally.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Q: How is the train a symbol of equity of mankind?

Ans: The train does not discriminate between the rich and the poor, the young and the old. It serves all mankind alike. It brings letters and other things for all no matter they are rich or poor. It holds all mankind equal.Thus the night mail is a symbol of equity.

Q: How does the train ensure universal brotherhood?

Ans: The train travels long distances. It passes through different cities and villages. It goes across provinces and countries. It brings the people of the universe closer to one another. So the train ensures the universal brotherhood between the people having different colour and creed, cast and culture.

Q: What is personification? How has it been used?

Ans: Personification means giving human attributes to some object or idea. Here, a non-human object behaves as if it were a human being. In these lines, the poet has personified a train that meets with the people and brings gifts to them. It has shoulders and throws steam over them. When it passes over hills, it exerts power. She/ it snorts.

STANZA NO. 2
Pulling up Beattock, a steady climb:
The gradient's against her, but she's on time
Past cotton-grass and moorland boulder
Shovelling white steam over her shoulder,

Reference:

These lines have been taken from the poem “Night Mail” written by W.H. Auden.

Context:
There is a train that brings things to people it is punctual. It passes through villages but nobody is alarmed or perturbed.

Explanation:

The train stops at different stations like Beattock. She climbs ascents with full energy. The steep ascents tend to mar her speed but she reaches the destination on time. She passes by cotton fields and uncultivated uplands. She passes over rocks and sprays white steams over her shoulders.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Q: How are gradients against the train?

Ans: The train has to travel far and wide.  The railway track passes over hills also. They tend to impede its speed. She has to keep her time. So the gradients are against her. They make her exert more force to reach her destination on time.

Q: What image does this stanza creates in your mind?

Ans: Like a painter the poet has painted picture of a village. He says that the train passes by cotton fields, grassy pastures and uncultivated grounds. She climbs steep slopes while white smoke of steam rises above her shoulders. All this depicts an image of rural life.

Q: What is personification? How does the poet use it there?

Ans: Personification means giving human attributes to some object or idea. Hereby, a poet speaks of a non-human object as if it were a human being. In these lines, the poet has personified a train that has shoulders and that keeps her time and gives out steam over her shoulders.

STANZA NO. 3
Snorting noisily as she passes
Silent miles of wind-bent grasses
Birds turn their heads as she approaches,
Stare from the bushes at her blank-faced coaches

Reference:

These lines have been taken from the poem “Night Mail” written by W.H. Auden.

Context:
There is a train that brings things to people it is punctual. It passes through villages but nobody is alarmed or perturbed.

Explanation:

The train travels by the fields for miles. She travels far and wide. But she makes a continuous gentle noise while running. There is complete silence all around. As she rushes by the fields, the grass bends with the trailing wind of the train. The small birds are afraid of her. They look at her and hide behind the bush. They are shocked to see the unnamed coaches of the train. Being colorful and beautiful, the birds find the night mail colorless and clumsy.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Q: What does silent-miles mean?

Ans: Usually, a train goes by the route which is away from a city. Railway tracks pass through areas which are away from a city. Therefore for miles, there is nobody to be seen. The train travels many miles through silence. This uncultivated and underpopulated distance has been called ‘silent miles’.

STANZA NO. 4
Sheepdogs cannot turn her course;
They slumber on with paws across.
In the farm she passes no one wakes,
But a jug in the bedroom gently shakes

Reference:

These lines have been taken from the poem “Night Mail” written by W.H. Auden.

Context:
There is a train that brings things to people it is punctual. It passes through villages but nobody is alarmed or perturbed.

Explanation:

The poet says that sheep dogs come across the train many times. They are kept for the protection of the sheep. But they cannot make the train change her way. They know it. Therefore they do not even change their relaxing posture when she arrives. They are sure that she would not harm them. She passes by the farms but farmers wake. She does not alarm them.  However, a jug lying in bedroom shakes because of her thumping.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Q: What is the use of sheep dogs in pastures?

Ans: When sheep go for grazing, other animals may attack them. The sheep are very coward and gentle animals. They cannot protect themselves. Sheep dogs are kept for the security of the sheep. Hence, they are called sheep dogs. This contrasts with city life where next door neighbors are strangers to one another.

Q: Why is no body alarmed by the train?

Ans: The train does not harm anything or anybody. She runs on her set track. She does not disturb the life around. The people know this practice for years. Therefore, they are not alarmed at her arrival. They are used to all this. The train has become a part of their life.

Q: How does the train emerge in these lines?

Ans: The train emerges as a friend of the villagers. She a part of their life. Though she is a machine, yet she is no alien to them. She is friendly and gentle. People trust her. Even sheep dogs are sure of her gentleness. Nobody is alarmed at her arrival.

Q: What pastoral life does this stanza depict?

Ans: In this stanza, the poet has painted the pastoral life like a painter. There are sheep grazing in the pastures. The sheep dogs are sleeping beside them. There is a farm where the shepherds and farmers are taking rest. There is a jug lying on the table. This all depicts a pastoral life.

 

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